After the attacks of September 11, 2001, terrorism has become part of our everyday life again, and it is only right that research has been conducted to explore the possible transposition of traditional terrorism into cyberspace. The first question is whether cyberterrorism itself can be defined. The first such definition is that of Keith Lourdeau, former head of the FBI’s cyber defence division, who defined cyber terrorism as ‘a crime committed using computers and telecommunications facilities to disrupt and/or disrupt services, causing confusion and uncertainty in the public. These actions are intended to influence the government or the population by force in order to achieve an organisation’s individual political, social or ideological goals. Professor Dorothy Denning also used similar language, writing immediately after 11 September 2001: “cyberterrorism is a computer-based attack or threat designed to intimidate or coerce governments or societies into achieving the political, religious, or ideological goals of a particular terrorist organization. At the same time, the United States of America routinely uses unmanned combat aircraft (armed drones) against terrorists in the Middle East. The use of military drones, however, raises a number of questions of military law and human rights, which have yet to be answered. The aim of my research is, in part, to show how the use of military drones in the 21st century can be assessed from an international law perspective, what the implications of the continued use of these tools will be, and how vulnerable these tools are to cyberterrorists


  1. UN Charter Article 51
  2. FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, L. No. 112-95. § 331(9)
  3. AIR 160: Interim Operational Approval Guidance 08- 01 of the Aviation Safety Unmanned Aircraft Program Office of the FAA on Unmanned Aircraft Systems Operations in U.S. National Airspace System, 13 March https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_i d=2763374
  4. SHARKEY Noel: Saying ‘No!’ to Lethal Autonomous Targeting Journal of Military Ethics, (4) 369- 383.
  5. SULLIVAN Sean: Domestic Drone Use and the Mosaic Theory University of New Mexico School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series, Paper No. 2013-02 1.
  6. GAO-12-981: Report of the S. Government Accountability Office on Unmanned Aircraft Systems – Measuring Progress and Addressing Potential Privacy Concerns would Facilitate Integration into the National Airspace System, September 2012. http://www. gao.gov/assets/650/648348. pdf
  7. SWD(2012) 259 final: Towards a European strategy for the development of civil applications of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), Brussels, 6 September
  8. Lászlóné Siska Katalin Szűcs: International Law -UNIVERSITAS-GYŐR Nonprofit Ltd. (2023) – 298.
  1. SINGER, Peter W. -STAUCH, Günther -BUCK, Christian: Mords -machines -Technology Review Heise Zeitschriften Verlag (May, 2012), 28 -34.
  2. Lászlóné Dr. Katalin Siska Szűcs: The reforms of Kamál Atatürk in the light of the contemporary Hungarian press and the pro-government Turkish cumhuriyet – Debrecen University Press (2020) – 241.
  3. Lászlóné Dr. Katalin Siska Szűcs – The limits of fundamental rights and the practice of the specific assessment of the public interest in Turkey – Digitall Sapiens Ltd. (2023) – 10.
  4. Katalin Siska: Family law provisions in modern Turkey, with special regard to the substantive and procedural issues of mixed marriages; In: Jog, Staat, 14 (1), 143-160, 2022.
  5. Katalin Siska: The impact of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on the concept of Turkish identity and citizenship, with special regard to constitutional law – In: Law, State, Politics 8 No.1 (2016) – 61.
  6. KOLESZÁR Béla: Ethical issues of robot warfare II Military morality In: Military Engineer, V No. 1 (March 2010), pp. 266-283.
  7. MAURIELLO Tracie: Do drones make killing and spying too easy http://www.postgazette.com/stories/news/world/do- drones- make-killing-spying-too-easy-633606/
  8. ALTMANN Jürgen: Preventive Arms Control for Uninhabited Military Vehicles In: Capurro and M. Nagenborg (Eds.), Ethics and Robotics, AKA Verlag Heidelberg (2009), pp. 69 – 82.
  9. MATT J Martin – SASSER Charles W.: Predator: The Remote Control Air War over Iraq and Afghanistan: A Pilot’s Story – Zenith Press (2010) -ISBN: 978-0-760- 3896 -4, 310.
  10. OUDES Cor – ZWIJNENBURG Wim: Does Unmanned Make Unacceptable? Exploring the Debate on using Drones and Robots in Warfare -IKV Pax Christi (May 2011) – ISBN: 9789070443672, 39 p.
  11. SPARROW Rob: Robotic Weapons and the Future of War In: Jessica Wolfendale and Paolo Tripodi (eds): New Wars and New Soldiers: Military Ethics in the Contemporary World – Ashgate Publishing, (2011), pp. 117 -133. – ISBN: 9781409401056, 281.
  12. LIN Patrick – BEKEY George – ABNEY Keith: Autonomous Military Robotics: Risk, Ethics, and Design CALPOLY, US Department of Navy, Office of Naval Research (December20, 2008) http://ethics.calpoly.edu/ONR_report.pdf
  13. Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations – Committee on Autonomous Vehicles in Support of Naval Operations, National Research Council National Academies Press https://nap.nationalacademies.org/catalog/11379/autonomous-vehicles-in-support-of-naval-operations
  14. Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap FY2011 -2036 – USA Department of Defence, Ref.No. 11-S- 3613 18 The UK Approach to Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Joint Doctrine Note 2/11 – Ministry of Defence, Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre (30 March 2011) – https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/5a81d239ed91 5d74e34003bc/20110505-JDN_2-11_UAS_archived-U.pdf
  15. WP 231: Opinion 01/2015 of the Article 29 Working Party on Privacy and Data Protection Issues relating to the Utilisation of Drones, 16 June 2015 https://ec.europa.eu/justice/article-29/documentation/opinion- recommendation/index_en.htm
  16. NIST Cyber-physical System (2017): NIST Cyber- physical https://www.nist.gov/el/cyber-physical- systems/cyber-physical-systems
  17. VALASEK Chris – MILLER Charlie (2014): A Survey of Remote Automotive Attack Surfaces. www.ioactive.com/pdfs/IOActive_Remote_Attack_Surfaces. pdf.
  18. ICS-CERT (2017): Alert (ICS-ALERT-17-209-01) CAN Bus Default Vulnerability https://www.cisa.gov/news- events/ics-alerts/ics-alert-17-209-01
  19. SOLON Olivia (2016): Team of Hackers Take Remote Control of Tesla Model S from 12 Miles The Guardian, 2016. 09.20.https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/sep/20/tesla- model-s-chinese-hack-remote-control-brakes
  20. http://www.nhtsa.gov/manufacturers/automated-driving- systems
  21. NATO (2017): Cyber Defence. https://natolibguides.info/cyberdefence/reports
  22. NATO (2016): Warsaw Summit Communiqué www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/official_texts_133169.htm